Citations help others find the information you used in your research paper.
Citing your sources accurately helps establish the credibility of your research.
Citations connect your work to the work of other scholars.
Citations are one way to honor and acknowledge the work of others who have made your own research possible.
A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism.
There are many rules relating to citations depending on the number of authors of the work, format of the source and citing of quotation.
OR Author’s name not cited in the text:
Replication studies in nursing have not been numerous, and the lack of these studies has hindered the development of a cumulative body of nursing knowledge.(Nieswiadomy, 2010, p. 12)
Research Planning also involves the selection or formulation of research strategies. (Polgar and Thomas, 2008, p. 3).
Cell fractionation is a technique for purifying different parts of cells so that they can be studied by physical and chemical methods. (Solomon et al, 2008).
Communication of science in the media has increasingly come under focus, particularly where reporting of facts and research is inaccurate (Goldacre, 2008a; Goldacre, 2008b).
Example: As direct reference According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo (2005) as cited by Holding et al. (2008, p. 142) most patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs. OR indirectly:
(Colluzzi and Pappagallo, 2005 cited in Holding et al., 2008, p.142)
Note: You are advised that secondary referencing should be avoided wherever possible and you should always try to find the original work.
• Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech)
• State the page number
Alder, et al state that ‘there is no consistent evidence for poor psychological well-being during menopause’ (2009, p.7).
Note: Duplication of charts, diagrams, pictures etc., should be treated as direct quotes. In that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced and in the title of the diagram.
Example: The number of Chicken Pox sufferers for the year 2008 in the Kingdom of Bahrain has been estimated as 3380 (Ministry of Health, 2008)
Note: If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the author name. Be careful: if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of your research. It is essential that you know where a piece of work has originated, because you need to be sure of the quality and reliability of any information you use.
• The title of the TV program (including online broadcasts) or video recording.
• Title of the film (whether on DVD, online, or video) as the author.
Therefore, your citation should use the title that you identify as the author.
For additional assistance consult our Information Services Desk or email firstname.lastname@example.org