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Harvard Referencing: Home

What is Referencing?

Referencing is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and carried out appropriate reading.

A reference is required if you:

  • Quote (use someone else’s exact words);
  • Copy (use figures, tables or structure);
  • Paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own words);
  • Summarize (use a brief account of someone else’s ideas).

Referencing FAQs

What if there is no date or more than one publication year given?

What if there is no obvious author for an item on the Web?

What is the difference between a bibliography and a reference list?

What should I do if there is more than one place of publication given?

If an author has more than one family name, do I need to write both of them?

Can I use footnotes at all in the Harvard System?

I don't know what I should cite, and what I can leave out of my reference list.

Why do I reference?

References enhance your writing and assist your reader by:

  • showing the breadth of your research;
  • strengthening your academic arguments;
  • showing the reader the source of your information;
  • allowing the reader to consult your sources independently;
  • allowing the reader to verify your data.

Have a referencing query?

Send your question to:

Dr Bindhu Nair

Dr Suchita

Ms Ginalyn


Harvard Referencing

Print Book with 1-3 Authors

Print Book with more than 3 Authors

Print Book with no authors

Print Book with multiple volumes

Print Book in a series

Print Book with Corporate author

Electronic Book

Chapter in an edited book

Translated book

Book in a Foreign Language

Journal Article Print

Journal Article Online

Journal Article cited in another (Secondary referencing)

Conference proceedings: whole

Conference proceedings: individual paper


Newspaper articles: print

Newspaper articles: online


Web pages and websites





Images- from print source

Images- from online source.

Brochure or pamphlet

Cochrane Review